The process of evolution that each species has over time to adapt effectively to its environment has been called natural selection .
This, combined with other factors that intervene in the behavior of evolution, such as genetic mutation, is very important.
Natural selection, therefore, must be understood as the event by which certain natural organisms shape their own physical, chemical and other characteristics. The purpose of developing this type of mechanisms by these organisms is to be able to adapt better and better in their own habitat.
Types of natural selection
In the field of biological sciences, it is also known as a disruptive selection process, in which the operation occurs randomly in said selection process. In this case, the phenotypic condition of the organism does not directly influence it, but rather random conditions. Although it seems that there is a certain disorder in it, it is quite the opposite since it is a balance.
In the field of biological sciences, they are often also known as a mechanism of guided natural selection. The way in which this type of selection behaves is when within the ecosystem itself some members of a population of the same organism are eliminated. Generally, this elimination process occurs in beings that are at the phenotypic extremes.
This occurs because the particular organism is continuously interacting with the environment, constantly interacting. And sometimes the environment itself undergoes certain modifications that border the organism that is directly involved with it, suffers a modification. A common example is the giraffe that has been modifying its neck due to the size of the tree.
Basically we are facing a natural and common process in which the members of a particular organization, due to the direct influence of the conditions of the environment itself, gradually undergo certain modifications in their behavior and physiology. This is due to direct effects on the phenotypic component of the living being inserted in an environment.
These types of events take place when within the environment where the particular living being is inserted, it does not lead to any type of modification, since the environment itself remains the same in an immovable time and space. For example, certain standards are naturally established, such as the life cycle of each living being.
Some biology scientists have come to call it a purifying selection process, which, due to the social and historical connotation of the term itself, has generated a strong debate on its use. It is unlikely that these types of events will occur, for the same reason that many living beings after so long have not had any type of modification in their body structure.
Within the animal world, it is common to find this type of natural selection event, especially in the matter of mating. Basically, it consists of a group of animals of the same sex fighting with their peers to demonstrate their strength and manage to mate with a female. Naturally, certain characteristics of animals are reinforced over the generations.