Chemical solutions or solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances, at a molecular or ionic level, they are homogeneous systems formed by two parts, a solvent and a solute, the solute being found in a smaller proportion within the chemical composition.
It is highlighted that chemical solutions can be found in various physical states, the most common being solutions in a liquid state, where the solute is commonly a solid that is added to a liquid solvent, which due to the disparate proportion of both can remain colloidal or in an emulsion state.
Types of solutions according to the amount of solute:
Saturated solutions: They are those in which there is the greatest possible amount of solute, which can be kept dissolved in the solvent, at a stable temperature. In these types of solutions, if a higher amount of solute is added, the mixture loses its ability to dissolve.
Supersaturated solutions: Supersaturated solutions occur when they contain more solute than the amount supported under equilibrium conditions by the solvent at a given temperature. These, therefore, are unstable solutions in which the dissolved excess will be deposited, for which the temperature factor takes on a relevant importance, because in case the temperature increases, there is no remnant, because when heated, the solubility of the solvent increases.
Concentrated: In them the percentage of solute is close to that which establishes the solubility of the solvent in question, at a certain temperature, commonly room temperature.
Types of solutions according to connectivity:
Electrolytic solutions: Electrolytic or ionic solutions are those in which the solute is dissolved in the solute forming ions.
Non- electrolytic solutions: Non-electrolytic solutions are those where ions are not formed, that is, there is no ionization process, this happens with non-polar or molecular substances, which when dissolved do not dissociate ions and therefore do not have electrical conductivity.
Some examples of electroless solutions: benzene in water, carbon tetrachloride in water, glucose in water, fructose in water, chloroform in water.
Examples of solutions:
- Coffee with milk.
- Oil paint and thinner.
- Water and salt.
- Oxygen in water.
- Steel (solution of iron and carbon, which at room temperature is solid).
- Water with salt
- sulfuric acid with water
- hydrochloric acid with water
- water with honey
- glucose water
- Carbonated drinks (dissolution of a gas in a liquid).
- sugar water
- water with alcohol
- water with oxygen
- Lime water (calcium hydroxide solution)
- coffee with water
- Milk chocolate