Production is understood as the various phases and processes that are carried out to achieve an end, whether it is the creation or manufacture of a product, as well as the exploitation of a certain resource. It is also usually called thus, to the systems that govern the activities, which provide the means for the creation of economic assets, goods, services and values, in an organized way, to meet the satisfaction of the needs of the people, understanding it to all economic activities (both primary and secondary), as well as economic or production systems.
Production can be classified in various ways, by the branch or product that is made, by the predominant economic-productive system, by volume, etc.
According to some social theorists such as Karl Marx, production had several phases or states of economic evolution, which followed one another consecutively, supposedly due to an inherent “class struggle” between “antagonist” groups. This historical-economic classification of production can be stated as follows.
Types of production according to their materialistic evolution:
Communal Production.- This is the incipient (and generally subsistence) production that was carried out or is carried out in primitive societies of a communal nature, it is agricultural production (and of other kinds), which was formerly carried out in the first societies (lithic, neolithic and the first historical ones), with both costs and benefits being very low, since both were distributed among the members of the community.
Slave Production.- This is the first “large-scale” productive mode or method that followed the incipient primitive production and was prior to the industrialization and mechanization of production, being that the productive force in terms of work was the hand of slave labor, that is, it is based on the use of slave labor for the exploitation of resources and the manufacture of products.
Its existence is known in almost all ancient cultures, being that those who carried out the work destined to production, agriculture, livestock, product manufacturing, as well as mining, forestry and fishing, that is, those who carried out Most of the jobs aimed at obtaining products and maintaining the economy were slaves subject to their owner, who enjoyed the benefits of the work of slaves, since the latter lacked rights and benefits. From his job.
For the most part, the slave population had been captured in war, sold as payment for debts or for other reasons, remaining in a state of permanent forced servitude.
It is a productive regime, in which the owners of the properties (including slaves as an object of property), obtained all the benefits of slave labor, being that the slaves were considered, as a mere productive instrument, as well as animals and tools.
Feudal Production.-It is the one that emerged in Western Europe around the 9th century and prevailed until the end of the 15th century, during feudalism. It was an economic production that was based mainly on agriculture and livestock, but also exploited fishing, mining and forestry resources, with rudimentary techniques, by the serfs, who were partially subject to the feudal lord, lacking land. own being at that time that the landowners and therefore owners of the production, were the nobles and clergymen, who exploited the work of the serfs providing them in exchange (at least nominally), protection and permission to live and cultivate on their land as a way of rent. Serfs were nominally free, unlike slaves. but by being subject to servitude and in the case of the serfs of the gleba (who were subject to living in the fiefdom and submitted to the feudal lord without the possibility of leaving). Although the base of the economy was what was obtained from the work of the land (agriculture and livestock), in the cities there were economic production activities that were not closely linked to the land, so they could be carried out free from subjugation or servitude to feudal lords and landowners, in the case of handicrafts (blacksmithing, carpentry, construction, etc.), these people were grouped into brotherhoods, guilds and corporations, as well as merchants, owners of the incipient commerce of The time.
Capitalist Production.- Capitalist method or mode of production is understood as the method based on private ownership of the means of production (land, machinery, economic capital). It is the economic mode of production that followed the feudal one, divides society into two levels, that of the capitalist owners of the means of production and that of the workers or proletarians, who lack ownership of said means of elaboration, being that at In the absence of these means, they are forced to “sell” their labor power for a salary, in order to be able to alleviate the shortages and supply the necessary goods for their own subsistence and that of their family.
It is a system that emerged after the industrialization and mechanization of production, which greatly increased the level of obtaining the products and at the same time lowering the price of the waxes that are manufactured (due to mechanization). which resulted in a decrease in costs, which directly affects the workers, since the capitalist, in order to further increase his profits, cuts the workers’ wages by not needing highly qualified personnel to operate the new machines, unlike artisanal production, which requires skilled labor and was well paid.
It is a system in which capitalists invest (capital) to improve production and profits, either by investing in machinery or in the (cheap) purchase of raw materials, as well as various technical processes aimed at raising of productive performance, in a manner aimed at reducing costs and increasing profits for the owner of capital, this is commonly accompanied by the detriment of employees’ wages, which condemns workers to complete economic dependence on the salary received, and of the increase in the price of inputs, resulting in the misery of the worker.
Communist Production.- This is a utopian system of production of material goods, which is based on the ownership of economic resources, the means of production and raw materials, by the entire community (the people), of a way to achieve the omnilaterality that would allow (in theory), the creation of highly developed production mechanisms that would allow obtaining in abundance the goods necessary for the life of all members of the community. This system has not materialized at any historical moment, being merely a theory, which has been used as a basis for political and social movements of a socialist-communist tendency.
Planned Production.- It is the one that is raised, studied and planned from the first processes (obtaining raw materials, equipment, labor), and has a predefined tendency for what type of articles, with what materials will be plowed and what rhythms are intended to be carried out, having said production destined for a previously established purpose (for example, the supply of shoes and uniforms for a school), also pre-establishing the costs, methods and times for its completion, through detailed planning (generally done by a central entity such as a government or company management).
Types of production according to the articles, manufactures or goods that are obtained:
Primary Production.- This is the obtaining of primary material benefits that can later be transformed to obtain benefits. This is the case of agricultural production (agriculture and livestock), fishing, obtaining forest, mining and oil resources (crude oil), among other productive economic activities within the primary or base area, which can later be used to the manufacture of other products.
Secondary Production.- It is the one that is focused on the transformation of raw materials into products that other economic-industrial sectors will transform into other items that, after their sale, will allow obtaining economic profits.
Agrarian Production.- These are the productive economic activities and actions within the primary activities, which are located in obtaining agricultural products from the land, by cultivating it. It is also called agricultural production, the gross amounts of product, obtained after harvesting the crops.
Livestock Production.- Livestock or livestock production is understood as the set of inputs, products, workforce, organization and techniques, aimed at obtaining economic benefits and goods, as a result of the exploitation of livestock (cattle, sheep, pigs, fish farming, beekeeping, poultry farming, etc.), obtaining products such as meat, dairy products, eggs, honey, skins, etc. As well as the economic benefits of its sale. Agricultural production is also understood as the volume of products that are obtained, that is, the amount of meat, skins, eggs or dairy products obtained.
Mining Production.- This is the product of the extraction of various minerals that is carried out through mining. Mining production is understood as the set of quantities extracted (gross), from the subsoil, by the mining industry, as well as the economic benefits obtained from it.
Forest Production.- This is the product of the extraction (logging), of forest products, and their sale. It is the result of the work of the people who work in the sawmills, cutting trees and closing them for later sale, transfer and manufacturing. for various purposes (carpentry, construction, joinery, etc.).
Manual Production.- Is one that does not use mechanized means for the preparation or manufacture of waxes, but uses exclusively human labor, and then (manual) crafts fall into this category or form of production.
Economic Production.- Economic production is understood as the ability to create a utility (money), which is sufficient to be able to satisfy the needs and generate the satisfactions of the person through a good, service, article or merchandise. This is carried out through several stages aimed at it, such as the planning of a project, its financing and the processes necessary to achieve it. That is, it is any productive process aimed at obtaining the benefits necessary for life and obtaining wealth.
Intellectual or idea production.- This is the conception of ideas (which are generally reflected in books, essays, etc.), whether in the humanistic field (philosophy, ethics, morals, literature, etc.), scientific, ( medicine, biology, physics, and others), being able to specify, in addition to written works, inventions and others, understood as the ideas and conceptions devised by a person, a group of people, or the members of an institution (for example an educational institution).