House is understood as those buildings that are intended to be inhabited by people, as well as occupied by their household goods. The houses fulfill the function of providing protection against the rigors of the weather and the elements, such as wind, cold, rain, etc., allowing the inhabitants of the house to have the necessary protection from what comes from the outside such as the elements and animals. , as well as providing convenience and comfort through various services, special rooms for rest, food preparation, daily cleaning and other “home” activities, through rooms adapted for this purpose, such as the bedroom, the bathroom, or the kitchen between other rooms.
A house of any type must have at least the necessary walls and a roof to shelter from inclement weather, more entrance and exit elements such as a door and generally windows (some houses lack them). In some cases, especially in cold areas, these have some type of heating system, such as fireplaces, electric heating, gas, etc. as well as running water services (hot or cold), gas supply, electricity, drainage and others. Services that vary both by the particular type of house in question, as well as the availability of resources and the style or era in which it is built.
In some cases, some special rooms are usually outside the house itself, located in the patio or garden, this is the case of rooms such as the bathroom (toilet or latrine), in some old houses where it was outside the house for health reasons. , as well as in the bathrooms themselves, as in the case of some traditional Japanese houses.
However, the essential thing in a house is the interior that provides protection from the outside, to be able to spend the night, since the different rooms for other uses may vary and even not exist in some houses. These can be one level, two or more.
Main types of house:
Houses can be classified in various ways, either by the type of material from which they are made, by the style or type of architecture on which they are based, by the use that is given to them (country, rest, city), for being single-family or multi-family, and for various other classification criteria.
It is a particular type of rural house that is built in wood, generally using logs, but also other natural materials and stones, but where wood logs dominate as construction material. They are typical of rural environments, mainly wooded, mountain and countryside. They are usually used as temporary vacation homes, but also as permanent homes. In some cases they are enabled for “camps”, tourist breaks, and inns.
Those houses that belong to the family or where the whole family lives.
They are houses in which more than one family or different people can live, in the case of guest houses.
Mobile or mobile homes
Homes adapted to trailers or trucks adapted to house functions, being small in size and not being fixed to a certain place, they do not have electricity, water, gas and drainage services, and these services must be connected in each place in which is established, either temporarily or semi-fixed. They have the advantage that the “environment” can be varied, with the person being able to move in with everything and a house.
Rural or country
Houses located in areas designated as housing in the countryside, for farmers and peasants, as well as those that are built in order to provide rest (for example for vacations), and may vary in the materials and luxury they may have, being able to be simple, luxurious, intended for tourism, be cabins or traditional houses made of stone or other materials.
Smart houses are called those that, thanks to their design, improve the comfort provided by the house (for example, improving the entry of light into the rooms), both due to the architectural layout they have, as well as the technological aggregates they have, same that improve the services of the house making life inside it more comfortable and safe.
Houses that are built on top of the branches of large trees, these are usually built for children’s games or fun, but there are several types of this type that are used to live, which are large and very elaborate. Due to the elevation arrangement they have as well as the scarcity of trees that allow them to support a construction of sufficient size, they are usually very scarce.
Those houses that are built with ecological materials, either recycled or reusable materials, as well as those that have ecological systems for heating, air conditioning, energy supply, and reuse of water and waste, so this type of house takes care of the environment environment by not excessively consuming resources.
They are houses made using blocks of ice, they are typical of cold areas such as Alaska and northern Canada, used by Amerindian tribes such as the Inuit. Its shape is half sphere having only one entrance. These are very resistant to the extreme climate of these latitudes and keep the heat inside. In addition, in its construction, no other materials than ice and snow are needed.
These are different types of houses that in their construction have prefabricated parts ready to be assembled, parts such as walls, ceilings, windows, doors and others. They can be made of various materials, since it is currently common for them to be built with concrete and/or wood panels, drywall, and other materials.
Types of houses according to the construction material:
In its construction and structure, the predominant material is adobe bricks (a mixture of clay, sand and straw), these have been known for millennia, being one of the types of construction that we can find in cultures such as Sumerian, Babylonian, and the European ones in remote times and still today in different parts of the world, thanks to the fact that their manufacture is cheap in areas where clay is abundant, such as in areas bordering rivers.
We speak of bamboo houses when dealing with buildings made mainly of bamboo, which tend to have a greater durability than those made with branches, being similar to those made of wood. Sometimes they are usually made in a luxurious way, since this material is usually very resistant and easy to handle. They are usually used as country houses, especially in tropical places where this material abounds.
This type of house that is built by using concrete in most of its parts. Making of this material pillars, through, as well as the walls, which can be built using concrete blocks, or by the method of emptying walls of this material (for example instead of building the walls with bricks or wood).
These houses are built using bricks, which are manufactured using baked clay and other materials, having a much greater durability and resistance than the aforementioned adobes. These are joined together, by preparing mortar (a mixture of sand, lime and/or cement, which serves as an additive and bond between the bricks), as well as for wall cladding.
Mud or clay houses
They are rustic constructions made with clay, which is placed allowing it to dry to later place more clay, thus creating the walls or through the use of stones, adobes or branches, which are later covered with clayey mud allowing it to dry and harden. These constructions are simple and whose use dates back to the dawn of civilization and is still used today, both in places where poverty does not allow the use of other materials. These usually have thatched or wooden roofs, also covered with clay or tar to prevent leaks.
These are a great variety of houses of different styles that are built mostly of wood. These can be of the rural type, such as cabins, or urban, such as classic European and California-style houses, as well as other styles. They are very common in European countries like Norway, Sweden, Germany, Denmark and others where wood is abundant, as in the case of places like Russia, USA and Canada.
Mixed material houses
Different materials are involved in its construction in variable proportions, these can be as different as stone, wood, glass, metal, concrete, etc.
In itself, these types of houses are simple constructions that are manufactured using branches and straw mainly, both for the elaboration of the walls, and to elaborate the roof, which can be made of simple straw placed in structures of branches as in the case of some African huts or rely on clay as a binder for thatch, especially on roofs. They are very common rustic type houses in current primitive populations in South America and Africa.
These are houses whose main construction material is stone or masonry. These are usually robust and very durable thanks to the resistance provided by the stone. There are various styles, which vary from time to time, as well as economic and technical availability. Being one of the oldest materials available to man, it is one of the materials with which houses have been built since ancient times.
They are usually simple, generally non-permanent constructions that were used by primitive men as temporary shelters, likewise several Amerindian and African cultures often use this type of material for the construction of houses.
Rammed earth houses
These are the ones that are built using the rammed earth method, which is very old but is still used, especially in some rural areas, for the construction of houses.
These are those where the construction is only carried out on a level or floor where all the rooms, bathrooms, kitchen and other dwellings of the same are located.
Two or more levels
They are those that are built on two or more levels, distributing on these levels the various rooms and private rooms for cleaning, food preparation, room to spend the night, etc.
Some examples of house construction styles:
- art deco
- Art nouveau
- English Tudor style
- French architectural style
- Italian Baroque style
- Classic style
- modern english style
- Queen Anne style
- victorian mansion
- chinese style
- japanese style
- Spanish style