Types of Chemistry

We call chemistry the branch of science and knowledge, which is dedicated to the study of the composition, structure and properties of matter, as well as the changes that occur in it and its chemical reactions (together with its correlation with energy during the reactions themselves), that is, it is the science that deals with the study of atoms, compounds, and substances and their transformations, analyzing and defining all the reactions that can occur between the various substances. Through this science we study the phenomena that are common to all matter, analyzing its inherent properties.

It is a branch of science that is divided into several specialties or sub-branches, each of which is responsible for a particular section.

Chemistry is a science that is the direct heir to alchemy and that collects the different empirical knowledge that has been acquired by man through the centuries, about the substances and compounds that surrounded him, together with the knowledge acquired after experimentation. (first done empirically and then systematically, through the scientific method), to obtain the necessary knowledge for the transformation of diverse substances into new useful substances, for industry and daily life, as well as for the understanding of the structure and functioning of the world around us.

The different types of chemistry are included within two main ones: which are inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry, subdividing in turn into other more specified branches or subgroups. For example, it can be divided depending on its application, such as in industrial chemistry, specifying itself in more specialized subjects such as pharmaceutical chemistry, petrochemistry, polymer chemistry, etc.

 

Main types of chemistry:

Organic chemistry or carbon chemistry

We call organic chemistry the branch of this science that is responsible for the study of the reactions that exist between the various chemical compounds that have an organic origin, that is, it is the one that is responsible for the study, analysis and experimentation with compounds that have within its composition elements typical of organic beings, such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen among other elements. Its field is all organic molecules and the compounds they form, including within this science both the study of the structure, properties, synthesis, degradation, behavior and possible uses of hydrocarbon or organic compounds (regardless of whether said compounds or molecules whether or not they belong to organic entities), entering within the field of this science various substances such as hydrocarbons,

In other words, it covers both the study of the chemical compounds of which living beings are composed, as well as the organic type compounds that exist but are not part of living beings, (such as the compounds belonging to the aforementioned hydrocarbons) , among others.

Inorganic chemistry

This deals with the study of the properties of those substances and compounds that are made up of molecules and atoms other than carbon (although there are some exceptions in terms of inorganic chemical compounds that do have carbon within their composition or structure). This branch of chemistry specializes in compounds that generally do not have hydrocarbon bonds, substances such as acids among other inorganic compounds. It is particularly important in the field of industrial chemistry and its branches.

Astrochemistry

This is the branch that is responsible for the study and analysis of the chemical composition of the various celestial bodies and the material diffused in interstellar space such as clouds and clusters of matter. It is the link between the sciences of astrophysics and chemistry, its purpose is to understand the chemical properties existing in the bodies of the universe.

Biochemistry

It is the branch of chemistry that is properly responsible for the study of the composition and chemical properties of living beings, both in the plant, animal and fungal kingdoms, analyzing the compounds and organic molecules of which they are composed (amino acids, proteins, lipids , nucleic acids, carbohydrates, biochemical reactions in cells and other chemical processes that occur in living beings.

Electrochemistry

This is the branch in charge of the study of the reactions that produce electrical effects, understanding that it is the fraction of chemistry in charge of analyzing the correlation between chemical reactions and their relationship with the transformations of chemical energy to electrical energy and vice versa, as well as the influence of the action of electric currents on chemical interactions.

Physical chemistry

It is what we call the branch of chemical science, responsible for the study of the different physical properties and the structure of matter, investigating the nanoscopic qualities and the macroscopic behavior of substances in nature. This science collects the specific data to define liquids, solids, gases, colloidal dispersions, solutions, in order to organize and structure said data and knowledge, for its transformation into hypotheses, theories and laws that provide a theoretical foundation. It is the point of union of several sciences (physics, chemistry, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, etc.).

Photochemistry

This is another of the sub-disciplines of chemistry, it is responsible for analyzing the phenomena and interrelationships between molecules and atoms, their interrelation with light and light phenomena, that is, with electromagnetic radiation. It is responsible for the analysis of photochemical reactions. This sub-category of science has various applications, such as the creation of substances that produce the absorption of certain electromagnetic wavelengths (the absorption of light of certain wavelengths), among many other applications.

Geochemistry

This is the specialty of chemistry in charge of the study of the chemical properties of minerals that exist in the earth, it is linked to the natural sciences, in particular to the earth sciences such as geology.

Nanochemistry

It is a relatively recent science, its object of study and creation is that of nanoparticles and their compounds, applicable in possible fields such as medicine, among others.

Neurochemistry

It is the section of medical biochemistry that deals with the study and interactions of chemical substances in the brain, such as melatonin, serotonin, hormones and neurotransmitters, psychotropic drugs and other substances, as well as their effects on the brain.

Industrial Chemistry

It deals with the investigation of substances and compounds for their application in the production of materials and chemical substances applicable in industry. This can be subdivided into two types: basic industrial chemistry, which focuses on using raw materials and transforming them into products suitable for industry (for example, oil in petrochemicals), and industrial transformation chemistry, which It is in charge of converting previously semi-finished products into manufactured products and substances for use or release to the market.

Pharmaceutical chemistry

It is responsible for the research and production of new medications (pharmaceuticals), which allow combating different medical-psychiatric conditions. It belongs to applied and industrial chemistry.

Petrochemistry

It is a sub-branch of carbon chemistry and in turn of industrial chemistry, it is responsible for the study and transformation of substances from oil and natural gas, for their conversion into fuels and other useful substances such as plastics, polymers, etc.

Nuclear chemistry

This branch is closely linked to radioactivity and the various nuclear properties and processes, it is the chemistry that occurs between the different radioactive elements, such as uranium, radon, radium and the actinides, the behavior of radioactive substances (for example in its interaction and effects with substances such as those that make up living beings, plants, animals and humans), after exposure to and absorption of radiation and its effects on their chemistry.

Practical chemistry

Within it all the branches of this science that have a practical utility or purpose are counted. This is the case of industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals whose purpose is the creation of compounds and substances with a specific utility.

Theoretical chemistry

It is the branch in charge of the study and analysis of chemical phenomena to obtain a better understanding of them, through the creation of computational or paper simulations, on the behavior of chemical substances at the molecular level, using tools such as quantum mechanics. , mathematics and the development of algorithms, which help the study of chemical phenomena, such as aggregation phenomena, segregation of molecular fragments (electrons, protons or combinations thereof), changes in density (by losing or gaining electrons) , the loss or gain of free radicals (such as in combustion processes), the detailed theoretical study of the phenomena of corrosion, oxidation, acid-base processes, regio selectivity processes, etc.

Environmental chemistry

It is a sub-category, in charge of the study of the influence of chemical components and their effects on the environment, both in terms of those chemical substances that are found within nature itself (derived from combustion processes in volcanoes or derived from other natural chemical phenomena that affect the environment), as well as the influence on the environment produced by chemical products created by man and that are dumped into the environment, affecting it in various ways.

Other types or categories of chemistry are:

Magnetochemistry

Analytic chemistry

computational chemistry

quantum chemistry

molecular chemistry

organometallic chemistry

supramolecular chemistry

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