Audits are called examinations that are carried out in a critical and systematic way, and that are carried out by a person (auditor) or by a group of people or organization specialized in carrying out the same, (audit companies, government audit institutions , etc.), evaluating people, companies, institutions and government agencies, using it as a measure of control and evaluation of performance, processes, income, expenses and allocation of resources, within the institution (company, agency, or trade) audited and it serves as a measurement tool to evaluate if the goals and objectives foreseen for the organization or entity that is audited. The audits must be carried out independently of that economic institution, which is audited, Therefore, for cases of audits such as those carried out in companies and businesses, and even in some government agencies, the services of specialized companies or institutions are usually required. This is the case of companies that provide auditing services to various businesses, industry and companies in general, or that are carried out by government institutional bodies, for the surveillance and examination of the handling of public funds, whether in government agencies or in companies belonging to the government.
To carry out an audit, some points must be taken into account:
1.- The objectives and scope of the audit are determined; as well as the activities to be analyzed, the resources needed to carry out the study, the identification of critical areas, etc.
2.- Evaluation of the information, in it all the data are selected, these are collected, analyzed and interpreted.
3.- Conclusion, the results are presented to the corresponding authority and the pertinent recommendations are made regarding what was analyzed in the audit process.
Main types of audit
Accounting.- It is the type of review and verification of the accounts and the economic situation of a company, carried out by an expert, who is independent of said accounting entity, (trade, company, etc.).
Financial.- The financial audit is responsible for examining the financial statements of the accounting entity, so that through them, the financial operations carried out by the accounting entity, are “clear” in order to issue a technical and professional opinion, regarding to the economic management that said entity has carried out during a certain period.
Tax audit.- The tax audit is one that is responsible for the examination of the facts of a tax nature. This type of audit can be private (companies, businesses, etc.), or governmental (government agencies, public government institutions, or government institutions).
Operational.- It is the examination that is carried out independently, of all the operations of a company, being done in an analytical, objective and systematic way, to determine if adequate procedures and operations are carried out, if there is effective use of resources. , (understood within the framework of achieving a favorable result, which leads to the goal of strengthening the company and its development). Through this audit, the processes are evaluated to determine which ones are ineffective and, where appropriate, change them for others that are more effective. For example, in a factory where certain transformation processes are carried out, after the evaluation (operational audit), it is determined if some of these processes are unnecessary for the optimal completion of the product.
Systems Audit (computer science).- It is the set of techniques, activities and procedures, intended to analyze, evaluate, verify and make recommendations, in matters related to the planning, efficiency, security, and control, of the computer service within a company. , including a methodical and punctual examination of the company’s computer service, with a view to improving the security, profitability and effectiveness of said computer services.
Environmental Audit.- They are those whose examination processes are directed towards the detection of possible environmental problems, contaminated places, and various processes that could harm the environment, as well as evaluating opportunities in matters such as new energies, saving natural resources ( such as water), the best use of water, forest and marine resources, evaluating the impact that the environment could have, for example when dealing with an urbanization project.
For this type of assessment, knowledgeable people from various fields, such as economics, environmental impact experts, etc., are used. That is, people who have the capacity and knowledge to evaluate, and determine what effects it would have on the environment and the economy.
For example, regarding a company that starts the exploitation of some natural resource, as well as to evaluate the economic impact that it could generate in a certain area.
Medical audit.- It is a critical and periodic evaluation of the quality of medical care received by patients, through the review and study of medical records and hospital statistics.
Administrative audit.- This type is responsible for evaluating and reviewing whether the methods, procedures and systems that are followed in all phases of the administrative process of a company, institution or government entity, ensure compliance with policies, plans, programs, laws and regulations, and whether these can have a significant impact on the organizational structure of the organization, and their effects on the production and effectiveness of the organization.
Social audits.- It is the type of examination that is responsible for evaluating ethical behavior, in relation to the company’s objectives, so that it can improve its social results.