The arguments are the speech through which evidence is presented to give foundation, credit and authority to a proposition, they are logical reasoning tending to justify coherently in favor of an idea or opinion.
The arguments provide reasons to support and defend an opinion, idea, or trend (political, social, religious, economic, etc.), providing reasoning, comparisons and ideas, in favor of a particular idea or line of thought, seeking to convince the public (reader or listener), on the validity of our arguments and ideas, to the detriment of contrary ideas, mainly on issues that lend themselves to controversy, sometimes even using fallacious arguments.
The arguments can be classified into two main groups, the logical-rational and the emotional-affective, but both tend to convince the other or an audience, through the presentation of ideas, reasons or through the use of feelings of empathy, love or hate
Logical arguments.- The arguments are logical expositions aimed at convincing an audience, person, reader, etc., through the coherent and rational exposition of the ideas that are intended to be accepted or taken into account by the audience, to the detriment of other ideas. or opinions that are contrary to ours.
Arguments by generalization.- They try to convince through generalizations of a set of particular cases, trying to expose them as a kind of rule or law, understanding that because something usually happens, that something should necessarily happen in a case of the same or similar type.
Analog arguments .- The arguments by analogy or comparative, are those in which a previous or similar situation is used that through the parallel reinforce the idea or line of thought for which it is being argued, an example would be the following, I was I was good at math when I was in primary school, so now that I intend to study for a career in mathematical physics, it will be very easy for me to do so. It should be noted that this type of argument lends itself to various fallacies.
Arguments by authority.-In various discussions, especially of philosophical, religious and political nature, the “institutional weight” or the importance of certain authors and their ideas is often used as an argument, taking it as a basis for the arguments themselves, based on the fact that this or that religious authority , philosophical, sociological, psychiatric, or renowned politician, has said this or that thing or support a certain line of thought, taking as a basis in favor of their own arguments what was said by that “authority”, alluding to the fact that said authority supports such or which line of thought or trend, taking not only what said authority could have expressed, but also using the “name” of the “authority” as if it were an argument in itself, so that on some occasions it even reaches The fallacy of “false authority”.
Argumentation through exemplifications.- On many occasions arguments are used in which examples are used to better expose the ideas that are intended to be accepted by an audience or the reader, with them it is alluded in various ways that the argument raised is the correct one or the best.
Emotional-affective arguments.-Sometimes in addition to exposing the reasoning of an argument, emotional-affective resources are used to convince about an idea or attract towards a certain line of thought, that is, appeal to feeling (empathy, love, hate, resentment, etc.). etc.), to help the conviction that is intended to be made with the logical arguments themselves. These affective-emotional arguments use the feelings of the recipient (audience, reader, etc.), using the desires, fears, doubts and feelings of love, compassion or hate, to move and provoke the sympathetic reaction of the idea or concept that is being exposed or the rejection of the contrary idea or the arguments presented against ours, sometimes not only fear is used but also certain intimidation,
Against arguments.- They are those that are specifically focused on the destruction, discredit, and even ridicule of the opposing arguments, through a more convincing argumentation, either by better reasoning, (destruction of the thesis contrary to ours), discredit, ( either asserting and demonstrating the fallacy or erroneousness of counterarguments), or ridiculing the arguments advanced by others, this can be done either by simply showing the counterarguments to be false, or by the use of demagogic subterfuge , ridicule and mockery regarding what has been said against us, a very common resource in counter-arguments of a political tendency.
Among the counter arguments there are often counter arguments that seem to be true but are misleading, that is, they are fallacies and are focused on changing the opinion of an audience or person.