What is the breath?
The breath is the physical mechanism by which living organisms enter the body certain gases necessary for survival, and that after having passed through an internal path, is returned to the environment as another gas. It is a reflex process, which occurs naturally in each body, and depending on it, and the environment to which the organisms belong.
There are two fundamental classifications of respiration:
1. Aerobic : It is the cellular respiration that occurs in one of its components, the Mitochondria, when they come into contact with atmospheric oxygen. It is the respiration that works in humans, animals and plants, in which the exchange is basically between the oxygen found in the air or in the water (in the case of fish and some amphibians) and the transformed return in carbon dioxide.
2. Anaerobic: This is a mechanism of bacteria and microorganisms , where the incorporation of oxygen is not necessary. The energy exchange occurs through a process known as fermentation in some cases (lactic, in the case of yogurt and other dairy products, or alcoholic, in the case of wine, for example) and as anaerobic respiration in others, where the The mechanism is similar to that of aerobics, with the difference that neither oxygen nor carbon dioxide intervenes.
In turn, in Aerobic organisms, the categories of respiration can also be subdivided, given the variety of environments and physiological characteristics to which they belong . These breaths can be:
to. Pulmonary : Performed by most vertebrates such as mammals, amphibians, reptiles and birds, it is characterized by the presence of an oxygen ingestion system , which begins from the nostrils, traveling through the respiratory system until it leads to the lungs, which they are in charge of this exchange. The lungs transfer oxygen from the environment to the blood through capillaries , which in turn return waste that the body does not need, in the form of carbon dioxide.
b. Cutaneous: Cutaneous respiration, as its name implies, occurs through the skin or the skin. It is the characteristic respiration of many invertebrates such as annelids (worms), certain mollusks, and as a complement in some of the growth phases of amphibians. Its mechanism is similar to that of the lung , but the blood vessels are located in the skin of these organisms, which must be very thin and moist and live in environments with the same characteristics to be executed.
c. Tracheal: Insects have a tracheal or tracheal breathing mechanism. They have an exchange system with a tubular shape, which allows them to enter the air directly from the outside environment to the inside of their body , without using the bloodstream that works very slowly in them. For this, these tubes have spiracles that are open and close holes, allowing gas exchange.
d. Branchial : The gills are small folds generally located to the side of organisms having this type of breathing, necessary for beings who find their underwater habitat. The gills open allowing the water to enter that is filtered by the capillaries that are inside the body, retaining the oxygen, and returning the carbon dioxide to its exterior. It is the respiration used in fish, crustaceans, some marine annelids and in the larvae of amphibians.
Plants breathe through all their components (roots, stems and leaves) which incorporate the surrounding oxygen through different channels both during the day and at night, although this process is more effective at night, which is when they ” they burn ”the energy obtained during the day in photosynthesis (and that should not be confused as plant respiration). In this process there is the exchange that allows the entry of oxygen and the exit of carbon dioxide, characteristic of aerobic organisms.