What are the receivers?
The receptors are proteins that enable certain vital substances for the human body to interact with the mechanisms provided by cellular metabolism , which degrades proteins, absorbs and transports sectors of the body that require for proper operation.
Examples of biological receptors
There are several types of biological receptors, among them are the following:
-Intracellular receptors: These are the elements of the cell that are responsible for intercepting the hormonal chemical message, identifying it and triggering genetic transcription , which will enable the distribution of proteins in the receptor organism. They are found in the cytosol, or they can also be located in the nucleus, and unlike extracellular receptors – which are found on the cell surface – they are unable to cross the lipid bilayer.
-Insulin receptors: They are those that are activated by the hormone insulin, and are transmembrane. They are responsible for transferring phosphate groups to certain proteins within the cell nucleus . The activation of this receptor and its biological process takes place at the moment in which an insulin molecule penetrates the membrane, producing an alteration in its initial structure, and generating enzymatic activity .
-Acetylcholine receptors: They are integral proteins of the cell membrane that are involved in the binding of neurotransmitters . They are located at the neuromuscular ends, fulfilling a fundamental function for the development of the activities of the central and peripheral nervous system. They are made up of five subunits called alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and a second alpha.
-Cytokine receptors: They are those that are associated with an intracellular signaling pathway and are distinguished by their enzymatic character. Among other functions, they are responsible for giving the cell the proper shape after transduction . In addition, they are characterized by a complex helix formation, and can be located both inside and outside the membrane.
-Receptors of beta lymphotoxins: They are responsible, as its name indicates, of encoding lymphotoxin , which is characterized by killing cells infected by viruses, penetrating their membrane, destroying their nucleus and deactivating them, so that they do not constitute a future danger to the organism. The primary use of beta lymphoxin receptorsis to develop and organize secondary lymphoid organs . They are also dedicated to releasing complex types of chemokines, proteins responsible for signal transduction.
-Glucocorticoid receptors: They are those that perform functions in most cells of the human body, regulating genes involved in the development of metabolism and the immune response of the body . This type of receptor is vital for the stabilization of the transcriptional process. Glucocorticoid receptors are initially found in the cytoplasm of the cell, but can follow two paths once the process has started: the first is towards the cell nucleus, and the second is to remain in the cytoplasm, although repressing the expression of proteins tending to cause inflammation.
-Opioid receptors: They are present in the central nervous system and are dedicated to regulating central effects such as euphoria, analgesia, decreased respiratory rate, cough, nausea and vomiting, and neuroendocrine activities. They can also cause peripheral effects and intervene in gastrointestinal problems, in cardiovascular arrhythmias, in the release of histamine or kidney and urinary disorders.
-Pharmacological receptors: They are the molecules that interact with drugs generating constant and specific modifications of primary cellular functions . The specificity of these receptors is key, since they are able to discriminate a minimal molecule from another, even if the structures of both are similar or the amount of drug concentration is low.