What are organelles?
The organelles (also known as organelle) are the “bodies” of cells in internal thereof both components, and the like bodies of the human body, organelles allow her to perform all its mechanisms for smooth operation. They are present in both animal and plant cells. The set of organelles with the fluids that are outside the nucleus of the cell are known as Cytoplasm.
Organelles are classified according to their function and structure. Among them are:
- Cell membrane: It is the wall or structure that encloses and gives shape to the cell . Its permeable property(as it has two faces) enables it to exchange information from the internal environment (cytoplasm) with the environment that surrounds it. By having viscous properties on its surface, it is empowered to move within the system.
- Nucleus : Circular in shape and covered by a double membrane (nuclear membrane), it is one of the largest components of the cell. It contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA – genetic information) and is responsible for storing, transmitting and transcribing this information as well as being responsible for the manufacture of enzymes, hormones and special proteins . It controls cellular processes and regulates the biological functions of the organism.
- Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum: It is a tubular system of flattened membranes, in turn connected to the nuclear membrane, and are responsible for the synthesis of proteins and lipids . In the case of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (REL), it synthesizes and produces lipids and is usually found in liver and muscle cells. While the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) synthesizes the proteins of the cell. Unlike REL, the rough one has this characteristic because it contains ribosomes.
- Ribosomes : They are found scattered in cells and in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, and like him (and with him) their function is to produce proteins . Those that are in the RER synthesize proteins for the outside of the cell, while those that are free or dispersed do so for its interior.
- Mitochondria: It has a double membrane (internal and external) and they fulfill the function of the “respiration“ of the cells in their enzymes as well as the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that stores almost all the chemical energy of the cells. They can be found by the thousands in the same cell and contain their own genetic material.
- Golgi apparatus: It distributes the complements that were synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum . Its shape is similar to that of large flattened sacs that are also responsible for the secretion of the proteins produced and their incorporation. This can occur thanks to the fact that one of its walls is near the cell membrane, and another near the endoplasmic reticulum.
- Lysosomes : Spherical in shape, they are responsible for the “digestion” of the cell by having hydrolytic enzymes in their components that digest matter. They are detached from the Golgi apparatus, and also fulfill the function of destroying and regenerating organelles.
- Vacuoles: They are found mainly in the cytoplasm of plant cells (although to a lesser extent also in animals), making up almost their entire volume. They are also bag-shaped, and fulfill the function of storing water, ions and nutrients necessary for their survival, but they also secrete the waste product of these cells , as well as eliminate salts and solutes.
- Cytoskeleton : The cytoskeleton allows connecting each of the parts of the cell, enabling their intercommunication . It is made up of three protein components (mainly keratin) forming small walls similar to very fine threads that enable this connection. These components are microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.