Biology

Types of Microorganisms

What are microorganisms?

In the same way that we humans, animals and plants exist, there are microorganisms , which are also living beings, although they are characterized by being tiny in size . Therefore, devices, such as the microscope, are used to shorten distances and examine them in their nature.

The science that studies them is microbiology. Through it, scientists try to find out the peculiarities of organisms, to specify their origin, and to catalog them appropriately. The microorganisms are classified within what is known as Kingdom Protista ; and each one of them has specific peculiarities that are not present in any other specimen from another Kingdom.

There are organisms called bacteria , which are grouped together in what is known as prokaryotes, and protozoa, algae and fungi grouped together in what are called eukaryotes, and tiny biological stocks, viruses .

Many of these are  pathogenic  and cause various ailments. Diseases of great importance throughout history have caused ups and downs in population density. However, microorganisms are not necessarily harmful, and most assume a very important role on Earth, through the decomposition and mineralization of organic material.

Classes of microorganisms

As we said, there are different types of microorganisms:

Bacteria : They flourished as the first living beings . His study was transformed into science with the invention of the () microscope. They are characterized by adopting structures that are incomparable to each other . They are found anywhere, in water, land, air, in the food we eat, and also intrinsically in different living beings, such as human beings.

Some of these bacteriological organisms are benefactors , since they favor the development of vegetation. What are called harmful or pathogenic bacteria produce disease, wrapped in harmful extracts called toxins. Some of the diseases caused by these are: pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, cholera, among others.

This type of disease occurs when we come into contact with an affected individual or insect, as well as other things or affected foods. If they have the character of rods, they are called bacilli , if they are visualized with a spiral structure, they are called spirochetes , and if their configuration is rather spherical, they are known as cocci .

Some of the diseases caused by bacteria are tetanus, tonsillitis, pneumonia, meningitis, syphilis, diphtheria, tuberculosis, among others.

Viruses : in this case, we find organisms smaller than bacteria. Its existence unfolds within living cells and its function is to intervene in the actions that are carried out inside them. They have facility for the proliferation and propose benefits so that the cell originates toxic components for the body. It is responsible for the motivation of the cell to create antitoxins that fight infection, thus conceiving that the body does not respond immunologically.

The contagion of these is caused by contact with bodily secretions, spreading simply through the saliva, semen, urine or blood of individuals.

Some of the diseases, caused by viruses, are influenza, measles, rabies, mumps, polio, diarrhea, herpes, chickenpox. In these times, where science is in continuous development, there are vaccines that prevent this type of disease; However, in other times, massive contagions occurred, devastating entire cities. Despite progress, even in these times of constant expansion, there are conditions where it is very difficult to intervene and that is why, in some cases such as HIV-AIDS or hepatitis B, they still cannot find a cure.

Fungi : they feel comfortable reproducing in humid areas of the body , such as the intestines and mouth, or in places where their function is to secrete sweat, as in the case of the feet, groin, sexual limbs and anywhere type of fold that is located in the epidermis.

Its appearance arises nothing more and nothing less than due to the lack of personal cleanliness or due to having diminished defenses , causing the appearance of discomfort such as athlete’s foot, erysipelas, ringworm, candidiasis or impetigo, among others.

Parasites : these are the most dangerous bodies , since they are housed within or above other organisms, and develop their lives at their outlets. They are complicated because they unlink a range of different abnormalities in the body they inhabit. From numerous ailments to the loss of the tissues of the invaded organism, and in some cases exhaustion and decrease of the red blood cells, known as anemia, since they are nourished by blood. There are opportunistic parasites , which spread from insects or other carrier animals, which are called “vectors”; as is the case of the dengue mosquito.

The most popular parasites, it could be said that they are worms , which feel comfortable living in the intestines, although some prefer to go further by reproducing in such high numbers that they allow themselves to travel through the digestive system, reach the respiratory tract and even stay in the brain, causing serious ailments. This type of worm is known by the name of “solitary”; It can have a flat or cylindrical shape, and there are known cases where they have even reached 10 meters in length.

Protozoa: they  are made up of a single cell , for which they cannot be seen with the naked eye. Its specific habitat is dirty water, excrement and contaminated foodstuffs. For this reason, and as a sign of prevention, it is recommended that food be cleaned and properly cooked before eating ; The same for the intake of liquids (if it is not mineral water, previously boil it). Another eventuality to take into account is to dispense with consuming food in the vicinity of animals or in street stalls that may not have adequate hygiene.

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