Biology

Types of asexual reproduction

What is asexual reproduction?

The asexual reproduction  is a kind of reproduction is distinguished by a single parent. It is a simple and ancient type of reproduction, that is, without the mediation of specialized or sexual cells , making parents and children alike, without any genetic differences. This process of cell division is called mitosis , and it is responsible for giving rise to the formation of new cells. It occurs in single-celled species with simple organization, whether they are animals or plants.

On the other hand, and no less important, the asexual reproduction that man performs in some plants, is called grafting, and was created in order to cause more specimens of the same variety.

Four forms of asexual reproduction

In asexuality, four forms of reproduction are differentiated:

1. Bipartition or binary division: it happens especially in unicellular specimens, and it occurs when a mother cell divides into two equal parts, giving rise to new cells, which are called daughters. They have the same genetic makeup as the mother. Example: unicellular algae, trees, bacteria, amoeba, paramecium, euglena.

2. Budding: it differs from the binary division since when the nucleus is divided, a small part is wrapped in cytoplasm , giving space to the emergence of what is called the bud, a new individual that develops freely from the parent. Example: yeast, hydra, sponge, coral, sunflowers.

3. Sporulation: originates from the development of spores.  This is possible thanks to the fact that some segmentations of the nucleus are caused, causing the appearance of many nuclei that are enclosed in an evolution inside their progenitor . At the end of the process, the stem cell fragments allowing spores to escape.

The sporulation also acts as a spreading agent, enabling the spread of the organism in different territories, while developing resistance under unfavorable circumstances for a long time. Example: ferns, mosses, fungi, algae,

4. Fragmentation: generally, this process develops thanks to the action of external factors . It occurs when a body clefts into several parts.  These fragmented parts, as the days go by, regenerate, giving rise to new organisms from the same parent. Example: in gardening this process is very common, gardeners make asexual reproductions with different varieties of plants using this fragmentation method.

Some worms also act under this process, dividing into several parts to give rise to the creation of their descendants.

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